The Journal of Experimental Neuroevolution
Published by Evolocus LLC, ISSN 2164-6481


Hippocampus (3D-reconstruction, mouse). hippocampus.mpg File size 0.9 MB.

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Koonin E.V. The Logic of Chance: The Nature and Origin of Biological Evolution (FT Press, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2012). First published in 2011. File size 5.3 MB.

Vyssotski L.L. The Technology of Achievements (Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 2011). Publ. in Russian: D’????D???DoD?D1 D?.D?. D¢Dμ?…D?D?D?D?D3D??? D′D?????D?D?DμD?D?D1 (D???D′-D2D? D?D? D?D?D?, D?D?D2D???D?D±D??€??Do, 2011). File size 3.3 MB.

Geodakian V.A. Two Sexes. Why? The Evolutionary Theory of Sex (Ed. by Sergey Geodakyan, Wilmington, 2012). File size 3.7 MB.

Geodakian V.A. Two Sexes - Why? The Evolutionary Theory of Sex (Ed. by Sergey Geodakyan, Wilmington, 2011). File size 2.4 MB.

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Epigenetics. Eds. Allis C.D., Jenuwein T., Reinberg D. & Caparros M.-L. (Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 2007). File size 130 MB.

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Harms J.W. Die Realisation von Genen und die consecutive Adaption. 1. Phasen in der Differenzierung der Anlagenkomplexe und die Frage der Landtierwerdung. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. 133, 211-397 (1929). File size 14 MB.

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Danilevski N.Ya. Darwinism: A Critical Study. Vol. 1, Part 2 (St. Petersburg, 1885). Publ. in Russian: D”D°D?D?D?DμD2??DoD?D1 D?.Dˉ. D”D°?€D2D?D?D?D·D?: D??€D???D???Dμ??DoD?Dμ D?????D?DμD′D?D2D°D?D?Dμ. D¢D?D? 1, D§D°?????? 2 (D?.-D?Dμ??Dμ?€D±???€D3, 1885). File size 70 MB.

Danilevski N.Ya. Darwinism: A Critical Study. Vol. 1, Part 1 (St. Petersburg, 1885). Publ. in Russian: D”D°D?D?D?DμD2??DoD?D1 D?.Dˉ. D”D°?€D2D?D?D?D·D?: D??€D???D???Dμ??DoD?Dμ D?????D?DμD′D?D2D°D?D?Dμ. D¢D?D? 1, D§D°?????? 1 (D?.-D?Dμ??Dμ?€D±???€D3, 1885). File size 57 MB.

Publications of Other Authors

Byrnes J.J., Johnson N.L., Carini L.M. & Byrnes E.M. Multigenerational effects of adolescent morphine exposure on dopamine D2 receptor function. Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jan 13. DOI 10.1007/s00213-012-2960-1

Crews D. & Gore A.C. Epigenetic synthesis: a need for a new paradigm for evolution in a contaminated world. F1000 Biol. Rep. 4, 18 (2012).

Manikkam M., Guerrero-Bosagna C., Tracey R., Haque M.M. & Skinner M.K. Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures. PLoS One 7(2), e31901 (2012). [Supporting Information]

Guerrero-Bosagna C.M. & Skinner M.K. Environmental epigenetics and phytoestrogen/phytochemical exposures. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2012). doi:pii: S0960-0760(12)00271-3. 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2012.12.011.

Guerrero-Bosagna C., Covert T.R., Haque M.M., Settles M., Nilsson E.E., Anway M.D. & Skinner M.K. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of vinclozolin induced mouse adult onset disease and associated sperm epigenome biomarkers. Reprod. Toxicol. 34, 694-707 (2012). [Supplementary Information]

Guerrero-Bosagna C. & Skinner M.K. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of phenotype and disease. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2011). doi:10.1016/j.mce.2011.10.004

Byrnes J.J., Babb J.A., Scanlan V.F. & Byrnes E.M. Adolescent opioid exposure in female rats: Transgenerational effects on morphine analgesia and anxiety-like behavior in adult offspring. Behav. Brain Res. 218, 200-205 (2011).

Frankel N., Erezyilmaz D.F., McGregor A.P., Wang S. Payre F. & Stern D.L. Morphological evolution caused by many subtle-effect substitutions in regulatory DNA. Nature 474, 598-603 (2011). [Supplementary Information]

Feng S., Jacobsen S.E. & Reik W. Epigenetic reprogramming in plant and animal development. Science 330, 622-627 (2010).

Skinner M.K., Anway M.D., Savenkova M.I., Gore A.C. & Crews D. Transgenerational epigenetic programming of the brain transcriptome and anxiety behavior. PLoS ONE 3(11), e3745 (2008). [Supplementary Information: S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8]

Stern D.L. & Orgogozo V. The loci of evolution: how predictable is genetic evolution? Evolution 62, 2155-2177 (2008).

Evans P.D., Mekel-Bobrov N., Vallender E.J., Hudson R.R. & Lahn B.T. Evidence that the adaptive allele of the brain size gene microcephalin introgressed into Homo sapiens from an archaic Homo lineage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 18178-18183 (2006).

Evans P.D., Gilbert S.L., Mekel-Bobrov N., Vallender E.J., Anderson J.R., Vaez-Azizi L.M., Tishkoff S.A., Hudson R.R. & Lahn B.T. Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans. Science 309, 1717-1720 (2005).

Byrnes E.M. Transgenerational consequences of adolescent morphine exposure in female rats: effects on anxiety-like behaviors and morphine sensitization in adult offspring. Psychopharmacol. 182, 537-544 (2005).

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Vyssotski D.L. Hybrid vigour and hybrid dysgenesis. Evolocus 1, 31-36 (2019).

Abstract. The formation of a hybrid phenotype in mammals remains a mystery. In order to resolve this mystery we have chosen inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, and their F1 hybrid B6D2F1, took only females for experiment and housed them during postnatal days P22-P60 either in standard or enriched living conditions, always 4 mice per cage. This adolescent cage enrichment has evoked either induction of hybrid vigour or its significant enhancement, observed in different operant behavioural tasks during the rest of their life (Morris water maze, Go/NoGo sound frequency and sound duration discrimination tasks). This induction or enhancement can be understood only if ontogenesis is an active process, driven by action acceptors a€“ by entities that percept the achievement of positive developmental results, even if the last ones have appeared with a help of random or unexpected factors of stochastic or genetic nature. The same way action acceptors direct evolution on Earth.

Supplementary Information for Vyssotski, 2019.

Full Text + SI (Combined PDF)



Neurologger 3 and its history. Evolocus 1, I-VI (2016).

Abstract. Neurologger has been originally designed to record EEG, local field potentials and neuronal activity in freely moving animals in their natural environments. Later its spectrum of applicability was extended to EMG and ECG recording. Recently Neurologger has been applied to study of auditory communication in animals and, thanks to increased up to 200 kHz sampling rate in single-channel mode, to study of ultrasonic echolocation in bats. Today Neurologger is represented by two versions: Neurologger 2A/2B and Neurologger 3. Neurologger 2A/2B remains our lightest version (1.3 g without battery) and it is capable to record up to 4 channels at 33.3 kHz, 10-bit into soldered on board memory (1 or 2 GB). Neurologger 3 is slightly heavier (1.7 g without battery), it records up to 32 channels at 20.8 kHz, 16-bit into microSDXC card (4-256 GB) and it has remote control and data access through BlueTooth communication with Windows 10 machines.

Supplementary Information for "Neurologger 3 and its history", 2016.

Full Text + SI (Combined PDF)



Vyssotski D.L. Nomogenesis and the logic of chance. Evolocus 1, 25-30 (2016).

Abstract. Evolution of available genomes was shown to be proceeding through random changes, the changes that comprise the main modus of evolution (Koonin, 2011). Morphological evolution of available and extinct Metazoa was shown to be going on the basis of law, by means of precession of characters, where characters originally manifested in the young along in the course of time and evolution were displayed also in adult descendants (or supposed descendants) of that organism (Berg, 1922). This contradiction is obviously solved in nature, where the appearance of any new genetic locus in the genome and its further expression in the phenotype can be separated by unlimited period of time and by unlimited number of generations.?? The management of dormant genetic loci has come from the previous evolutionary stage, unimaginable today, where organisms were open systems with respect to the flow of genetic elements and were collecting, discriminating and storing genetic elements from the external environment. This was an important period when multiple systems for blocking and unblocking of genetic loci came into being. However even before this stage, it was even more fantastic evolutionary period where replication, transcription and translation were absent and Eigen cycle was not possible, but organisms were collecting randomly available components (proteins, RNA and DNA) by means of action acceptors (Anokhin, 1955) a€“ sites of double-stranded DNA mechanically compatible with useful components. Action acceptors themselves were unable to be replicated by modern way (no DNA polymerase!), but they were collecting their pseudo-copies from the environment a€“ the pieces of DNA that were born in the environment and occurred to be compatible by chance with current action acceptors. Action acceptors, a€“ the structures that sense presumably useful results or substances, were directing evolution from the early beginning and they are directing it today through activation and deactivation of dormant genetic loci.

Supplementary Information for Vyssotski, 2016.

Full Text + SI (Combined PDF)



Vyssotski D.L. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation and natural selection. Evolocus 1, 19-24 (2014).

Abstract. The term a€?epigeneticsa€? defines all meiotically and mitotically heritable changes in gene expression that are not coded in the DNA sequence itself. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation was discovered in the untreated progeny of drug-treated males (rats and mice) as the opposite quantitative phenotypic changes. In natural populations, the hereditary basis of transgenerational epigenetic compensation develops mainly in homozygous mutant males, but it does not affect their phenotype. In their descendants, being in an independent locus, this heritable epigenetic compensation increases fitness and lifespan of homozygous mutant females and decreases lifespan of wild-type females, starting from F2. Here we show that this transgenerational epigenetic compensation is a guiding agent of natural selection. Natural selection is not a directing or driving force of evolution anymore. Natural selection needs some guidance. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation can initiate speciation through segregation of mutants and wild-types and/or it can change the selection coefficient of a given mutation.

Supplementary Information for Vyssotski, 2014.

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Vyssotski D.L. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation and sexual dimorphism. Evolocus 1, 13-18 (2013).

Abstract. The term a€?epigeneticsa€? defines all meiotically and mitotically heritable changes in gene expression that are not coded in the DNA sequence itself. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation was discovered in the untreated progeny of drug-treated males (rats and mice) as the opposite quantitative phenotypic changes. In natural populations, heritable epigenetic compensation can convert mutants into hopeful monsters, initiates speciation, and therefore determines the route of macroevolution. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation facilitates genetic assimilation of acquired characters in microevolution. The ontogenesis of females is better canalized than that one of males, and natural selection proceeds mainly through selection of males. However the presence of sexual dimorphism in transgenerational epigenetic compensation remains unclear. Here we show that the hereditary basis of transgenerational epigenetic compensation develops mainly in males. However the phenotypic results of this development are more pronounced in their female descendants, starting from F2. This sexual dimorphism enhances the efficiency of micro- and macroevolution.

Supplementary Information for Vyssotski, 2013.

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Vyssotski D.L. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation in evolution. Evolocus 1, 7-12 (2012).

Abstract. The term a€?epigeneticsa€? defines all meiotically and mitotically heritable changes in gene expression that are not coded in the DNA sequence itself. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation of disturbed functionality was discovered in the untreated progeny of drug-treated fathers as the opposite quantitative phenotypic changes (phenotypic inversion). Epigenetic changes, responsible for heritable compensation, are distributed between several independent loci and these changes disappear gradually and asynchronously during a few untreated generations. The role of hereditary epigenetic compensation in evolution remains unclear. Here we show that transgenerational epigenetic compensation of disturbed functionality converts mutants into hopeful monsters, initiates speciation and facilitates genetic assimilation of acquired characters. The increase of environmental pressure, applied to mutant and wild-type animals, induces heritable epigenetic compensation in mutants (initially less fit), whereas the development of wild-types remains canalized. In a random breeding population this heritable epigenetic compensation increases fitness and lifespan of mutants and decreases lifespan of wild-types.

Supplementary Information for Vyssotski, 2012.

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Vyssotski D.L. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation. Evolocus 1, 1-6 (2011).

Abstract. The term a€?epigeneticsa€? defines all meiotically and mitotically heritable changes in gene expression that are not coded in the DNA sequence itself. The ability of environmental factors to reprogram the germ line and to promote transgenerational disease states has significant implications for evolutionary biology. However, the biological function of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance remains unclear. Here we show that epigenetic inheritance promotes transgenerational compensation of disturbed functionality. After chronic morphine treatment of male Wistar rats or neonatal thyroxine treatment of male DBA/2J mice many of the changes discovered in the untreated progeny occurred to be the opposite of those observed in the treated fathers themselves. Phenotypic analysis of the untreated F1-F3 generations has revealed several independent epigenetically modified loci. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation was observed in the F2-F3 and further generations of transgenic Per2(Brdm1) mice raised under semi-natural outdoor conditions and it was localized not in the same locus as original mutation.

Supplementary Information for Vyssotski, 2011.

Full Text + SI (Combined PDF)




Evolocus Neuroscience-2019 Special Issue. File size 20 MB.

Evolocus Neuroscience-2016 Special Issue. File size 19 MB.

Our Publications

Vyssotski D.L. Hybrid vigour and hybrid dysgenesis. Evolocus 1, 31-36 (2019). [Supplementary Information]

Neurologger 3 and its history. Evolocus 1, I-VI (2016). [Supplementary Information]

Vyssotski D.L. Nomogenesis and the logic of chance. Evolocus 1, 25-30 (2016). [Supplementary Information]

Vyssotski D.L. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation and natural selection. Evolocus 1, 19-24 (2014). [Supplementary Information]

Vyssotski D.L. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation and sexual dimorphism. Evolocus 1, 13-18 (2013). [Supplementary Information]

Vyssotski D.L. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation in evolution. Evolocus 1, 7-12 (2012). [Supplementary Information]

Vyssotski D.L. Transgenerational epigenetic compensation. Evolocus 1, 1-6 (2011). [Supplementary Information]

Vyssotski D.L. Transgenerational Epigenetic Compensation of Paternal Drug Treatment. Supporting Online Material (Evolocus, New York, 2010). [Erratum]

Vyssotski D.L. The Last Trick of Neuroevolution. An Addition to the Book "Elements of Biological Concepts" (Evolocus, New York, 2007). Publ. in Russian: D”.D?. D’????D???DoD?D1, D?D???D?DμD′D?D?D1 ???€??Do D?DμD1?€D???D2D?D?????D?D?. D”D?D?D?D?D?DμD?D?Dμ Do DoD?D?D3Dμ "D-D?DμD?DμD????? D±D?D?D?D?D3D???Dμ??DoD??… DoD?D???DμD???D?D1" (D-D2D?D?D?Do????, D?????-D?D??€Do, 2007).

Vyssotski D.L. Elements of Biological Concepts (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 2004). Publ. in Russian: D”.D?. D’????D???DoD?D1, D-D?DμD?DμD????? D±D?D?D?D?D3D???Dμ??DoD??… DoD?D???DμD???D?D1 (D?D°??DoD°, D?D?D2D???D?D±D??€??Do, 2004), ISBN 5-02-032061-7.

Other Publications

Lesku J.A., Meyer L.C.R., Fuller A., Maloney S.K., Dell'Omo G., Vyssotski A.L. and Rattenborg N.C. (2011) Ostriches sleep like platypuses. PLoS One, 6(8):e23203. [Figure S1] [Figure S2] [Movie] [Supplementary Text]

Tsoar A., Nathan R., Bartan Y., Vyssotski A., Dell'Omo G. and Ulanovsky N. (2011) Large-scale navigation map in a mammal. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, Aug. 15 (Epub ahead of print). [Supporting Information] [Movie]

Daan S., Spoelstra K., Albrecht U., Schmutz I., Daan M., Daan B., Rienks F., Poletaeva I., Dell'Omo G., Vyssotski A., and Lipp H.-P. (2011) Lab mice in the field: unorthodox daily activity and effects of a dysfunctional circadian clock allele. J Biol Rhythms, 26(2): 118-29. [Supplementary Online Material]

Pang D.S., Robledo C.J., Carr D.C., Gent T.C., Vyssotski A.L., Caley A, Zecharia A., Wisden W., Brickley S.G., and Frank N.P. (2009) An unexpected role for TASK-3 potassium channels in network oscillations with implications for sleep mechanisms and anesthetic action. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2009 Oct 13; 106(41):17546-51.

Vyssotski A.L., Dell'Omo G., Dell'Ariccia G., Abramchuk A.N., Serkov A.N., Latanov A.V., Loizzo A., Wolfer D.P., and Lipp H.-P. (2009) EEG responses to visual landmarks in flying pigeons. Curr Biol. 19(14), 1159-1166. [Supplement]

Rattenborg N.C., Voirin B., Vyssotski A.L., Kays R.W., Spoelstra K., Kuemmeth F., Heidrich W.,and Wikelski M. (2008) Sleeping outside the box: electroencephalographic measures of sleep in sloths inhabiting a rainforest.
Biol Lett. 4(4):402-5.

Vyssotski A.L., Serkov A.N., Itskov P.M., Dell'Omo G., Latanov A.V., Wolfer D.P., and Lipp H.-P. (2006) Miniature neurologgers for flying pigeons: multichannel EEG and action and field potentials in combination with GPS recording. J Neurophysiol 95: 1263-1273.

Vyssotski, A.L., Dell'Omo, G., Poletaeva, I.I., Vyssotski, D.L., Minichiello, L., Klein, R., Wolfer, D.P., and Lipp, H.-P. (2002). Long-term monitoring of hippocampus-dependent behavior in naturalistic settings: mutant mice lacking the neurotrophin receptor TrkB in the forebrain show spatial learning but impaired behavioral flexibility. Hippocampus 12, 27-38.

Vyssotski D.L. Acute and Chronic Effects of Morphine in the Progeny of Male Rats with Opiate Dependence (Institute of Normal Physiology, Moscow, 2001). Ph.D. thesis in Russian: D’????D???DoD?D1 D”.D?. D??????€??Dμ D? ?…?€D?D?D???Dμ??DoD?Dμ ??????DμDo???? D?D??€??D?D?D° ?? D?D???D?D?????D2D° Do?€????-??D°D???D?D2 ?? D?D?D?D°??D?D?D1 D·D°D2D???D?D?D????????? (D?D?D? D?D¤ D?D?D?D?, D?D???DoD2D°, 2001). File size 36 MB.

Vysotskii A.L., Vysotskii D.L., Gudasheva T.A., Ostrovskaya R.U., Anokhin K.V. (1999). Modulation of long-term memory by delayed administration of the Amide of L-Pyroglutamyl-D-alanine, a nootropic agent, in spaced and massed training in rats. a€“ Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 29(2), 137-142.

Publications of Other Authors

Weyrich A., Lenz D., Jeschek M., Chung T.H., R??bensam K., G??ritz F., Jewgenow K. & Fickel J. Paternal intergenerational epigenetic response to heat exposure in male Wild guinea pigs. Mol. Ecol. 25, 1729-1740 (2016).

Skinner M.K., Guerrero-Bosagna C., Haque M., Nilsson E., Bhandari R. & McCarrey J.R. Environmentally induced transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming of primordial germ cells and the subsequent germ line. PLoS One 8(7), e66318 (2013). [Supplementary Information: s1, sT1, sT2]

Skinner M.K. Environmental epigenetics and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance. In Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease: Epigenetics and Disease Origins, Jirtle R.L. & Tyson F.L., Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2013), pp. 245-256.

Skinner M.K., Manikkam M., Haque M.M., Zhang B. & Savenkova M.I. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of somatic transcriptomes and epigenetic control regions. Genome Biology 13, R91 (2012).

Perreau-Lenz S., Sanchis-Segura C., Leonardi-Essmann F., Schneider M. & Spanagel R. Development of morphine-induced tolerance and withdrawal: involvement of the clock gene mPer2. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 20, 509-517 (2010).

Theissen G. Saltational evolution: hopeful monsters are here to stay. Theory Biosci. 128, 43-51 (2009).

Schneider S., Kaufmann W., Buesen R. & van Ravenzwaay B. Vinclozolin - The lack of a transgenerational effect after oral maternal exposure during organogenesis. Reprod. Toxicol. 25, 352-260 (2008).

Crews D., Gore A.C., Hsu T.S., Dangleben N.L., Spinetta M., Schallert T., Anway M.D. & Skinner M.K. Transgenerational epigenetic imprints on mate preference. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 5942-5946 (2007). [Supporting Information] [Movie]

Koonin E.V. The cosmological model of eternal inflation and the transition from chance to biological evolution in the history of life. Biology Direct 2, 15 (2007).

Zuckerkandl E. & Cavalli G. Combinatorial epigenetics, a€?junk DNAa€?, and the evolution of complex organisms. Gene 390, 232-242 (2007).

Theissen G. The proper place of hopeful monsters in evolutionary biology. Theory Biosci. 124, 349-369 (2006).

Zlotin B. & Zusman A. A Natural Brain for Intelligent Design (Ideation International, Southfield, Michigan, 2005).

Anway M.D., Cupp A.S., Uzumcu M. & Skinner M.K. Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors and male fertility. Science 308, 1466-1469 (2005). [Supporting Online Material]

Mirkin B.G., Fenner T.I., Galperin M.Y. & Koonin E.V. Algorithms for computing parsimonious evolutionary scenarios for genome evolution, the last universal common ancestor and dominance of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of prokaryotes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 3, 2 (2003).

Mirkin B. & Koonin E. A top-down method for building genome classification trees with linear binary hierarchies. In Bioconsensus, Janowitz M., Lapointe J.-F., McMorris F., Mirkin B. & Roberts F., Eds. (DIMACS Series, Vol. 61, AMS, Providence, 2003), pp. 97-112.

Cicero T.J., Nock B. & Meyer E.R. Gender-linked differences in the expression of physical dependence in the rat. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 72, 691-697 (2002).

Segr?? D. & Lancet D. Composing life. EMBO Reports 1(3), 217-222 (2000).

Schwartz J.H. Homeobox genes, fossils, and the origin of species. Anat. Rec. 257, 15-31 (1999).

Agrawal A.A., Laforsch C. & Tollrian R. Transgenerational induction of defences in animals and plants. Nature 401, 60-63 (1999).

Banko M.L., Allen K.M., Dolina S., Neumann P.E. & Seyfried T.N. Genomic imprinting and audiogenic seizures in mice. Behav. Genet. 27, 465-475 (1997).

Cicero T.J., Nock B. & Meyer E.R. Gender-related differences in the antinociceptive properties of morphine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 279, 767-773 (1996).

Friedler G. Paternal exposures: impact on reproductive and developmental outcome. An overview. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 55, 691-700 (1996).

Cicero T.J., Nock B., O'Connor L., Adams M.L. & Meyer E.R. Adverse effects of paternal opiate exposure on offspring development and sensitivity to morphine-induced analgesia. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 273, 386-392 (1995).

Scharloo W. Canalization: genetic and developmental aspects. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 22, 65-93 (1991).

Eriksson P.S. & Ronnback L. Effects of prenatal morphine treatment of rats on mortality, bodyweight and analgesic response in the offspring. Drug Alcohol Depend. 24, 187-194 (1989).

Eriksson P.S., Ronnback L. & Hansson E. Do persistent morphine effects involve interactions with the genome? Drug Alcohol Depend. 24, 39-43 (1989).

Campbell J.H. & Perkins P. Transgenerational effects of drug and hormonal treatments in mammals: a review of observations and ideas. Prog. Brain Res. 73, 535-553 (1988).

Ho M.W., Tucker C., Keeley D. & Saunders P.T. Effects of successive generations of ether treatment on penetrance and expression of the bithorax phenocopy in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Exp. Zool. 225, 357-368 (1983).

Belyaev D.K., Ruvinsky A.O., Agulnik A.I. & Agulnik S.I. Effect of hydrocortisone on the phenotypic expression and inheritance of the Fused gene in mice. Theor. Appl. Genet. 64, 275-281 (1983).

Belyaev D.K., Ruvinsky A.O. & Trut L.N. Inherited activation-inactivation of the star gene in foxes. J. Hered. 72, 267-274 (1981).

Belyaev D.K., Ruvinsky A.O. & Borodin P.M. Inheritance of alternative states of the fused gene in mice. J. Hered. 72, 107-112 (1981).

Belyaev D.K. Destabilizing selection as a factor in domestication. J. Hered. 70, 301-308 (1979).

Smith D.J. & Joffe J.M. Increased neonatal mortality in offspring of male rats treated with methadone or morphine before mating. Nature 253, 202-203 (1975).

Vuillaume M. & Berkaloff A. LSD treatment of Pieris brassicae and consequences on the progeny. Nature 251, 314-315 (1974).

Durrant A. The environmental induction of heritable change in Linum. Heredity 17, 27-61 (1962).

Zuckerkandl E. & Pauling L. Molecular disease, evolution, and genic heterogeneity. In Horizons in Biochemistry, Kasha M. & Pullman B., Eds. (Academic Press, New York, 1962), pp. 189-225.

Platt J.R. A "book model" of genetic information-transfer in cells and tissues. In Horizons in Biochemistry, Kasha M. & Pullman B., Eds. (Academic Press, New York, 1962), pp. 167-187.

Paigen K. & Noell W.K. Two linked genes showing a similar timing of expression in mice. Nature 190, 148-150 (1961).

Thoday J.M. & Boam T.B. Effects of disruptive selection: II. Polymorphism and divergence without isolation. Heredity 13, 205-218 (1959).

Thoday J.M. Effects of disruptive selection: I. Genetic flexibility. Heredity 13, 187-203 (1959).

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McClintock B. Controlling elements and the gene. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 21, 197-216 (1956).

Waddington C.H. Genetic assimilation of the bithorax phenotype. Evolution 10, 1-13 (1956).

Altshuller G.S. & Shapiro R.B. On the psychology of inventors' creativity. Problems of Psychology (6), 37-49 (1956). Puibl. in Russian: D?D?????????D?D?Dμ?€ D“.D?. D? D¨D°D?D??€D? D?.D‘. D? D???D??…D?D?D?D3D?D? D?D·D?D±?€Dμ??D°??DμD?????DoD?D3D? ??D2D??€??Dμ????D2D°. D’D?D??€. D???D??…D?D?., 1956, a?– 6, ?????€. 37-49.

Anokhin P.K. New data on the characteristics of the afferent mechanism of the conditioned reflex and their significance for psychology. Problems of Psychology (6), 16-38 (1955). Publ. in Russian: D?D?D??…D?D? D?.D?. D?D?D2??Dμ D′D°D?D???Dμ D?D± D???D?D±DμD?D?D????????… D°????Dμ?€DμD???D?D?D3D? D°D?D?D°?€D°??D° ????D?D?D2D?D?D3D? ?€Dμ??D?DμDo??D° D? D??… D·D?D°??DμD?D?Dμ D′D??? D???D??…D?D?D?D3D?D?. D’D?D??€. D???D??…D?D?., 1955, a?– 6, ?????€. 16-38.

Waddington C.H. Genetic assimilation of an acquired character. Evolution 7, 118-126 (1953).

Waddington C.H. Canalization of development and the inheritance of acquired characters. Nature 150, 563-565 (1942).

Fleck L. Some specific features of the medical way of thinking. In Cognition and Fact - Materials on Ludwik Fleck, Cohen R.S. & Schnelle T., Eds. (D. Riedel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1986), pp. 39-46. First published in 1927.

Studentsov N.P. The inheritance of domestication in white mice. Rus. Physiol. J. 7, 317-318 (1924) [Publ. in Russian: D?.D?. D?????D′DμD???D?D2, D?D°??D?DμD′D?D2D°D?D?Dμ D??€D??€????DμD?D?D?????D? ?? D±DμD????… D?????DμD1. D?????. ??D?D·D?D?D?. D????€D?. 7 (D2??D?. 1-6), 317-318 (1924)].

Pawlow I.P. New researches on conditioned reflexes. Science 58 (Vol. LVIII, No. 1506), 359-361 (1923).

Vavilov N.I. The law of homologous series in variation. J. Genet. 12(1), 47-89 (1922).